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Mentioned? But you were able to see clearly in the former pleading, that many Roman citizens from Sicily, most honourable men, gave evidence about most important transactions, both as to injuries which they had received themselves, and injuries which they knew had been inflicted on others. The imperium was as necessary for the governor of a province, as for a general who merely commanded the armies of the republic; as without it he could not exercise military authority. I can detail to you the whole affair in regular order, and at last tell you what Edition: current; Page: [163]the result was, namely, that Dio paid a million of sesterces, in order to prevail in a cause of most undeniable justice, besides that Verres had his herds of mares driven away, and all his plate and embroidered vestments carried off. As soon as he perceived this, by the advice of his friends and relations he fled to Rome, and betook himself to Cæcilia, the daughter of Nepos, (whom I name to do her honour,) with whom his father had been exceedingly intimate; a woman in whom, O judges, even now, as all men are of opinion, as if it were to serve as a model, traces of the oldfashioned virtue remain. You cannot by any means deny this, unless you are determined to deny everything. He did not appear to his recognizances. and his savage manners, and brutal nature, and his life devoted to every sort of vice and crime, his whole character, in short, given up to profligacy and abandoned? He brought farmers of the revenue and contractors of every class to strict account, and regulated all contracts by his own perhaps too low estimate of the actual worth of the work done or the service rendered. Oh how correct was the augury diffused by common report and common conversation among the people in that province! While he is urging this with a loud voice, six of the most vigorous lictors surround him, men in full practice in beating and scourging men; they beat him most furiously with rods; then the lictor who was nearest to him, the man whom I have already often mentioned, Sextus, turning his stick round, began to beat the wretched man violently on the eyes.

Is it so? That you see. or, as he did not come to Ameria on account of this business, did it happen by chance that he was the first to tell the news which he had heard at Rome? For the statues were erected under the superintendence of those men by whom that honour was paid to you—I am glad to hear it; but, if that money was paid to Timarchides, cease, I beg of you, to pretend that you were desirous of glory and of monuments when you are detected in so evident a robbery. Nor was there any longer any assistant left to us but yourself by whose means we could obtain our rights against them. Listen to the decree of the mercenary prætor from his own note-book; and take notice how great his gravity is in framing a decree, how great his dignity is in pronouncing it. All these statues Edition: current; Page: [401]which I have mentioned, O judges, Verres took away from Heius, out of his private chapel. Recite it. v. Judex. Will you say that that was settled by the trial of Philodamus? You, forsooth, hindered any part of the forces of these slaves from passing over from Italy into Sicily? But I will tell you, O judges, what I am sure of. ii.

He begs this some time before his arrival, and at the same time declares that he will sell the tenths according to the law of Hiero; that is to say, that in the whole business of the tenths he will do nothing like that man. I.

Cato’s own book is a manual of hard, stern, sometimes brutal economy, advising the sale of worn-out cattle, and of old or sick slaves. There will be some men, too, who will blame his boldness in having released some of the contractors from supplying the corn due to the public, when they could make it for his own interest. LXXVII. Did Quintus Maximus then do nothing? Then that worthy man,—I hope he will not think I am laughing at him if I call him again a most worthy man,—as he thought that he was brought into a great strait, hoping to pin him down to his own terms at the very nick of time, says that he will not pay a penny, unless a decision is first come to about all the affairs and accounts of the partnership, and unless he knew that there would be no dispute between him and Quintius. . XLIX. c. Verr. XXXVII. That town was a receptacle for your plunder, those men were the witnesses to and guardians of your plunder; they supplied to you both a repository for your thefts, and a conveyance for them. The senate permitted Lucius Octavius and Caius Cotta, the consuls, to put up to auction at Rome the tenths of wine, and oil, and of pulse, which before your time the quæstors had been in the habit of putting up in Sicily; and to establish any law with respect to those articles which they might think fit.

For he showed that if any one made a demand of any thing from an absent person, he would hear the cause, though without any precedent for so doing. Sositenus is a citizen of Entella; a man of the greatest prudence, and of the noblest birth in his city. And so I suppose the cultivators begged of him, that, as they could not sell a modius of wheat for three sesterces, they may be allowed to pay three denarii instead of each modius. Carbo was very indignant that there had fallen to his lot as his quæstor a man of such notorious luxury and indolence. VIII. After he was condemned in his absence, possession is given to the palæstra of the Syracusans,—that is, to the Syracusan people,—not only of that inheritance which was in question, and which was of the value of three millions of sesterces, but also of all Heraclius’s own paternal property, which was of equal amount. Or do you merely wish to prove by this conduct, your unprecedented insolence, and pride, and obstinacy?

Of all these men I must produce one as witness who can say that the money was paid. If in any place of that province corn was at the price at which he valued it, then I think that this charge ought not to have any weight against him. “Honorable age is not that which standeth in length of time, or that is measured by number of years. Ant. Be it so; you are unable to allege any motive. You ought to regard not the result of the demand, but the beginning of the mutual agreement. “Because the matter in dispute was really a money matter, but the prætor ordered the trial to proceed de probro.”—Hottoman. . For I do not venture to say with respect to such a man as that, if he did give evidence he would not be believed. Because if it were decided that Quintius had forfeited his recognizances, infamia was the consequence. He never, he says, got a hundred thousand sesterces from Flavius at all, neither on account of Panurgus, nor of any one else. He displays all his treasures; much silver, also not a few goblets of gold, which, as is the custom of kings, and especially in Syria, were studded all over with most splendid jewels. For the present I assume, what you grant me, that they are most hostile to you. Yet his literary culture must have been of a high order. Another provision of the law, mentioned by Cicero, forbade a person who was census to give more in amount in the form of a legacy or a donatio mortis causâ to any person than the hæres or hæredes should take.”—Smith, Dict. He finds another subterfuge of dishonesty and treachery in the same track. And so we departed from the forum when it was now nearly evening. Then those officers who succeeded the prætors Marcus Lævinus, or Publius Rupilius, or Marcus Aquillius in that province, had not to collect the cultivators who were left. I was impressed, also, by what Socrates, whom the oracle of Apollo pronounced the wisest of men, taught with regard to the immortality of souls, on the last Edition: current; Page: [58]day of his life. Among these naval captains was a citizen of Heraclia, of the name of Junius, (for they have some Latin names of that sort,) a man, as long as he lived, illustrious in his own city, and after his death celebrated over all Sicily. And, even if no one were to answer you, yet you would not, as I think, be able to state and prove even the cause itself. For in truth it was drawn up in these words.
Hottomann makes sure that there is some corruption of the MS. here, and Grævius agrees with him. For then you will not be able to say that the agriculturists were angry with and enemies to you. If your father, at the request of any friend, whether influenced by kindness or wishing to curry favour with him, had made that petition to you, still the inclination of your father ought to have had the greatest weight with you; but when he begged it of you for the sake of your own safety from a capital charge, and when he had sent trustworthy men from home, and when they had come to you at a time when the whole affair was still intact, could not even then a regard, if not for affection, at least for your own safety, bring you back to duty and to common sense? The contract is let out for a work which is to be done and paid for out of my money.

VII. And this idea had not got about merely because he had deliberately determined and resolved not to appear, but because no one believed that any one would be so audacious, so frantic, and so impudent, as, after having been convicted of such nefarious crimes, and by so many witnesses, to venture Edition: current; Page: [153]to present himself to the eyes of the judges, or to show his face to the Roman people. those are vulgar and wornout imputations, but this conduct is novel and unheard-of. Men, who in their exceeding wickedness are pleased not only with their lust and pleasure itself, but also with the fame of their wickedness, do wish to leave in many places the marks and traces of their crimes. Ant. L. Wherefore, if by any chance you find one who attempts to defend him from this accusation in the matter of the fleet, let him defend him thus; let him leave out those common topics which have nothing to do with the business—that I am attributing to him blame which belongs to fortune; that I am imputing to him disaster as a crime; that I am accusing him of the loss of a fleet, when, in the uncertain risks of war which are common to both sides, many gallant men have often met with disasters both by land and sea. I say that Servilius took much more care to have the booty of the Roman people noted and described, than you took to have your plunder catalogued. where do you suppose it was? XIII. See Professor Long’s note on this passage. If you prefer Quintus Cæcilius to me, I shall not think that I am surpassed in dignity; but take you care that the Roman people do not think that a prosecution as honest, as severe, as diligent as this would have been in my hands, was neither pleasing to yourselves nor to your body. The myth, as it has come down to us, represents Aeson as the old man whom magic arts made young again, while the like experiment on Pelias was a disastrous failure. The land of Herbita, of Enna, of Morgantia, of Assoria, of Imachara, and of Agyrium, was so deserted as to its principal part, that we had to look not only for the allotments of land, but also for the body of owners. Alphenus says that it is not reasonable for an agent to give security, because the defendant would not be bound to give security if he were present himself.

Such numerous and enormous vices as his will not be considered to have been cancelled by influence, by family connexion, by some things which may have been done well, or even by the minor vices of flattery and subservience; in short, I will conduct the cause in this manner; I will bring forward things of such a sort, so well known, so proved by evidence, so important, and so undeniable, that no one shall venture to use his influence to obtain from you the acquittal of that man; for I have a sure path and method by which I can investigate and become acquainted with all their endeavours. A fickle man? And Metellus himself, who is taking care of the revenues for the future, who is reassembling the cultivators of the soil who are left, what does he effect but this, to make those men plough, if they can, to whom Verres’s satellite Apronius has hardly left one plough remaining, but who yet remained on their land in the hope and expectation of Metellus?

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